Tag Archives: energy

“Cutting the Electric Bill for Internet-Scale Systems”

This paper begins with three observations:

  1. Energy-related costs are an increasingly large portion of total data center operating expenses.
  2. The cost of electricity can vary significantly between different times and between different regions at the same time.
  3. Many distributed systems already have the ability to dynamically route requests to different hosts and physical regions (for example, most CDNs try to minimize client latency and bandwidth costs by routing requests to a data center “close” to the client.)

Therefore, the paper investigates the feasibility of shifting load among replicas of a service that are located in different geographic regions, according to the current price of electricity in each region. For this to be effective, several things must be true:

  1. There must be significant variation in the price of electricity available in different regions at the same time.
  2. Data centers must be energy proportional: as the load on a data center is decreased by a factor of k, its energy usage should decrease by the same factor.
  3. Routing traffic to minimize the cost of electricity may result in increasing client latency and using more bandwidth (since cheap power might be far away from the client); the additional routers traversed might also use additional energy.

To answer the first question, the authors conduct a detailed empirical study of the cost of energy in different regions across the US, and compare that information with traffic logs from Akamai’s CDN. The authors use the Akamai traffic data to estimate how much the cost of electricity could be reduced by routing requests to the cheapest available electricity source, subject to various additional constraints.

The authors don’t do much to address the second question: they admit that the effectiveness of this technique depends heavily on energy-proportionality, but most computing equipment is not very energy-proportional (idle power consumption of a single system is typically ~60% of peak power usage, for example). Since energy-proportionality is the subject of much recent research, they express the hope that future hardware will be more energy-proportional. Finally, they carefully consider the impact of electricity-price-based routing on other optimization goals: for example, they consider only changing routes in a way that doesn’t result in any increased bandwidth charges (due to the “95-5” pricing scheme that most bandwidth providers use). A realistic implementation of this technique would consider electricity cost as one factor in a multi-variable optimization problem: we want to simultaneously minimize electricity cost, minimize client-perceived latency and minimize bandwidth charges, for example.

Summary of Results

The authors found significant asymmetry in electricity prices between geographic areas; furthermore, this asymmetry was dynamic (different regions were cheaper at different times). These are promising results for dynamic routing of requests based on electricity prices.

When cluster energy usage is completely proportional to load and bandwidth cost is not considered, price-sensitive routing can reduce energy costs by ~40%. The savings drop to only 5% if the energy-proportionality of current hardware is used, and the savings drop to a third of that if we are constrained to not increase bandwidth costs at all (assuming 95-5 pricing). Hence, this technique is only really effective if energy-proportional data centers are widely deployed.

Discussion

I thought this was a great paper. The basic idea is simple, but their empirical study of the US electricity market was carefully done, and the results are instructive.

One interesting question is what would happen to the electricity market if techniques like these were widely deployed. Essentially, electricity consumption would become more price-elastic. When a given region offers a lower price, demand could move to that region quite quickly, which might act to drive up the price. Conversely, it would lower demand in higher-priced regions, lowering the price — and hence benefiting more inelastic energy consumers in that region.

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“Skilled in the Art of Being Idle”

Skilled in the Art of Being Idle” looks at how to reduce energy consumption by network end hosts (primarily desktops and laptops). Modern computers have various “sleep” states that allow reduced power consumption during idle periods. However, putting a computer to sleep has several costs:

  1. Transitioning into and out of a sleep state requires time (the paper cites a recent paper that found that typical machines take 3-8 seconds to enter “S3” sleep state, and 3-5 seconds to resume).
  2. Sleeping hosts cannot respond to network packets; hence, they can lose their network presence (e.g. DHCP lease can expire and be reassigned to another host). They also cannot run periodic tasks (e.g. backup or virus scanning).

A naive approach would put idle nodes to sleep, and then awaken them (via established “wake-on-LAN” support) when a packet is delivered to the node. This is insufficient: the authors demonstrate that in both home and office environments, the inter-arrival time of packets destined for idle computers is too small, so the cost of transitioning into and out of sleep state would negate any significant power savings. To avoid this problem, prior work has proposed using a proxy to handle network traffic intended for a sleeping node. The proxy can either ignore the traffic (if appropriate); handle the packet itself (e.g. by responding to an ARP query for the sleeping node’s IP), or it can awaken the sleeping node and forward the packet to it, if necessary. The effectiveness of proxying therefore depends on most traffic for an idle node fitting into the first two categories.

The paper is an empirical study of 250 machines owned by Intel employees, to assess the need for proxying in practice; the potential benefit of proxying; the network traffic that must be handled by a proxy; and so on.

Summary of Findings

  • Most machines are idle, most of the time — on average, machines were idle 90% of the time.
  • Home and office idle network traffic is markedly different, in both inter-arrival time of packets for idle machines (offices have more such traffic), and the nature of this traffic.
  • A power-saving proxy would need to handle broadcast, multicast, and unicast traffic to achieve significant gains. However, broadcast and multicast traffic represents “low-hanging fruit”: a proxy that handles only broadcast and multicast traffic would recover 80% of the idle time in home environments, and over 50% of the idle time in office environments.
  • For broadcast, address resolution (ARP, NBNS) and service discovery (SSDP for UPnP devices) protocols are the dominant sources of traffic for idle nodes. Both kinds of traffic are easy to proxy.
  • For multicast environments, routing traffic (HSRP, PIM) is the dominant source of traffic for idle nodes in an office environment. In a home environment, service discovery (SSDP) is dominant.
  • Their results for unicast traffic are less clear. They argue that only outgoing TCP connections dominate unicast traffic for idle nodes, and that less than 25% of this traffic is the result of some action a node initiated before becoming idle (and hence might need to be maintained in the idle state). They argue that outgoing traffic initiated while the machine is idle can often be batched together, or avoided entirely.

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